CHOW.com Ingredient Substitution List

CHOW.COM INGREDIENT SUBSTITUTION LIST

Below is a list of ingredients followed by possible substitutions. The suggested substitutions will vary depending on the recipe or technique. In a pinch, these should prove helpful.

    a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

  • A
  • B
    • BAKING POWDER–1 teaspoon
    • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar (prepare right before using)
    • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup yogurt, butter, or sour cream
    • BREADCRUMBS–1 cup
    • 1 cup cracker crumbs
    • 1 cup matzo meal
    • BUTTER, CLARIFIED–1 tablespoon
    • 1 tablespoon vegetable oil
    • BUTTER, UNSALTED–1 cup
    • 1 cup unsalted margarine
    • 1 cup vegetable or canola oil
    • 1 cup lard
    • 1 cup coconut oil
    • 1 cup applesauce (for some baked goods)
    • BUTTERMILK–1 cup
    • 3/4 cup whole-milk or low-fat yogurt plus 1/4 cup milk (for baked goods, not savory dishes)
    • 1 tablespoon lemon juice or distilled white vinegar plus 1 cup whole milk, let stand 10 minutes before using (similar to buttermilk in sour flavor but not in thickness)
  • C
    • CHEESE, GRUYÈRE–4 ounces
    • 4 ounces fontina
    • 4 ounces Emmentaler
    • 4 ounces Jarlsberg
    • 4 ounces sharp cheddar
    • CHOCOLATE, BITTERSWEET OR SEMISWEET–1 1/2 ounces
    • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus an extra 1 tablespoon granulated sugar added to the recipe
    • CHOCOLATE, UNSWEETENED–1 ounce
    • 3 tablespoons unsweetened natural cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon unsalted butter, vegetable oil, or shortening (best for small-quantity substitutions)
    • 1 1/2 ounces bittersweet or semisweet chocolate and subtract 1 tablespoon granulated sugar from the recipe
    • COCOA POWDER, DUTCH-PROCESS–3 tablespoons
    • 3 tablespoons unsweetened natural cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda
    • COCONUT, FRESH–1 cup
    • 1 cup dried, flaked coconut
    • 3/4 cup dried, shredded coconut
    • CORN SYRUP, DARK–1 cup
    • 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses
    • 1 cup dark treacle
    • CORN SYRUP, LIGHT–1 cup
    • 1 cup dark corn syrup (gives a more pronounced flavor)
    • 1 cup light treacle (also known as golden syrup or cane syrup)
    • 1 cup honey
    • CORNMEAL, STONE-GROUND–1 cup
    • 1 cup regular milled cornmeal
    • 1 cup corn grits
    • 1 cup dry polenta
    • CORNSTARCH–1 tablespoon
    • 2 1/2 teaspoons arrowroot powder
    • 1 tablespoon potato starch
    • 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
    • 2 tablespoons instant tapioca
    • CRACKER CRUMBS–1 cup
    • 1 cup breadcrumbs
    • 1 cup matzo meal
    • CREAM OF TARTAR (FOR BEATING WITH EGG WHITES)–1/2 teaspoon
    • 1/2 teaspoon distilled white vinegar
    • 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice
    • CREAM OF TARTAR (FOR BAKING)–1/2 teaspoon
    • 1 1/2 teaspoons distilled white vinegar
    • 1 1/2 teaspoons lemon juice
    • (Just be careful that the additional liquid doesn’t throw off the recipe.)
    • CRÈME FRAÎCHE–1 cup
    • 1 cup sour cream
    • 1/2 cup heavy cream plus 1/2 cup sour cream
    • 1 cup mascarpone
    • 1 cup plain whole-milk yogurt
  • D
  • E
    • EGG–1 whole
    • 1/4 cup egg substitute
    • 2 1/2 tablespoons powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water
    • ESPRESSO POWDER, INSTANT–2 tablespoons
    • 2 tablespoons instant coffee (in baked goods)
  • F
    • FLOUR, ALL-PURPOSE–1 cup
    • 1 cup bread flour
    • 1/2 cup cake flour plus 1/2 cup whole-wheat flour
    • FLOUR, BREAD–1 cup
    • 1 cup all-purpose flour
    • FLOUR, CAKE–1 cup
    • 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons cornstarch
    • FLOUR, RICE–1 cup
    • 1 cup cake flour
    • 1 cup potato flour
    • 1 cup tapioca flour
    • FLOUR, SELF-RISING–1 cup
    • 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon fine salt
  • G
    • GELATIN, LEAF OR SHEET–4 leaves (4 by 9 inches)
    • 1 (1/4-ounce) envelope powdered gelatin (about 2 1/2 teaspoons)
    • 2 teaspoons agar-agar
  • H
    • HERBS, FRESH–1 tablespoon
    • 1 teaspoon dried
    • HONEY–1 cup
    • 1 cup maple syrup
    • 1 cup light corn syrup
    • 1 cup light molasses
    • 1 cup agave nectar
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
    • LEMON, JUICE–1 teaspoon
    • 1 teaspoon white wine vinegar
    • 1 teaspoon lime juice
  • M
    • MARSHMALLOWS–8 regular
    • 1 cup miniature marshmallows
    • 2 1/2 ounces marshmallow creme
    • MASCARPONE–1 cup
    • 1 cup crème fraîche
    • 3/4 cup cream cheese plus 1/4 cup heavy cream
    • MILK, EVAPORATED WHOLE–1 cup
    • 1 cup half-and-half
    • 1 cup light cream
    • 1 cup heavy cream
    • MILK, SKIM (A.K.A. NONFAT)–1 cup
    • 1/4 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons water
    • 1/2 cup evaporated skim milk plus 1/2 cup water
    • MILK, WHOLE–1 cup
    • 1/2 cup evaporated whole milk plus 1/2 cup water
    • 2/3 cup 1 percent milk plus 1/3 cup half-and-half
    • 3/4 cup 2 percent milk plus 1/4 cup half-and-half
    • 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons skim milk plus 2 tablespoons heavy cream
    • 2/3 cup skim milk plus 1/3 cup half-and-half
    • MOLASSES–1 cup
    • 1 cup honey
    • 1 cup dark corn syrup
    • 1 cup maple syrup
    • 1 cup agave nectar
    • MUSTARD, GROUND–1 teaspoon
    • 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
    • 1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds, lightly toasted
  • N
  • O
    • ONION–1 cup chopped
    • 1 cup chopped shallots
    • 1 cup chopped leeks
    • 1 cup chopped scallions
    • (You can substitute red, white, or yellow onions 1 for 1.)
  • P
    • PANCETTA, SLICED–1 cup
    • 1 cup sliced and blanched (boiled for about two minutes to remove the smoke) bacon
    • POLENTA, DRY–1 cup
    • 1 cup cornmeal
    • 1 cup corn grits
  • Q
  • R
  • S
    • SALT, KOSHER, DIAMOND CRYSTAL–1 teaspoon
    • 1/2 teaspoon fine salt
    • 1/2 teaspoon fine sea salt
    • 3/4 teaspoon Morton kosher salt
    • SALT, KOSHER, MORTON–1 teaspoon
    • 3/4 teaspoon fine salt
    • 3/4 teaspoon fine sea salt
    • 1 1/2 teaspoons Diamond Crystal kosher salt
    • SALT, FINE–1 teaspoon
    • 1 3/4 teaspoons Diamond Crystal kosher salt
    • 1 1/4 teaspoons Morton kosher salt
    • 1 teaspoon fine sea salt
    • SHORTENING (FOR BAKING)–1 cup
    • 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard
    • 1 cup unsalted butter or margarine
    • 1 cup coconut oil
    • 1 cup applesauce
    • SOUR CREAM–1 cup
    • 1 cup plain whole-milk yogurt
    • 1 cup crème fraîche
    • 1 cup Mexican crema
    • SUGAR, LIGHT BROWN–1 cup
    • 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon molasses pulsed in a food processor
    • SUGAR, DARK BROWN–1 cup
    • 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses pulsed in a food processor
    • SUGAR, GRANULATED–1 cup
    • 1 cup packed light brown sugar
    • 1 cup honey and reduce the liquid in the recipe by a quarter
    • 1 cup maple syrup and reduce the liquid in the recipe by a quarter
    • 1 cup cane syrup (also known as light treacle or golden syrup) and reduce the liquid in the recipe by a quarter
    • 1 cup light corn syrup and reduce the liquid in the recipe by a quarter
  • T
    • TOMATO SAUCE–1 cup
    • 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water
  • U
  • V
  • W
    • WINE (FOR COOKING)–1 CUP
    • 1 cup vegetable or chicken broth plus 2 teaspoons wine vinegar or lemon juice
    • 1 cup dry vermouth
  • X
  • Y
    • YEAST, ACTIVE DRY–1 (1/4-ounce) envelope (about 1 scant tablespoon), dissolved in warm water (around 110 degrees Fahrenheit)
    • 1 scant tablespoon rapid-rise instant dry yeast
    • YOGURT, PLAIN (WHOLE MILK)–1 cup
    • 1 cup sour cream
    • 1 cup buttermilk
    • 1 cup crème fraîche or crema
    • 1 cup heavy cream plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice
  • Z

SOURCES:
Allrecipes.com
The America’s Test Kitchen Family Baking Book
Cook’s Illustrated
The Cook’s Thesaurus
e-cookbooks.net
Joyofbaking.com
The New Food Lover’s Companion
University of Nebraska-Lincoln